Zhengzhou Zhengyang Machinery Equipment Co., Ltd

Difficulties and solutions in the process of EV battery recycling and disassembly

2022-04-05 16:44:49

Usually, power batteries with a capacity lower than 40% will enter the dismantling and recycling process. In theory, valuable metal elements such as nickel, cobalt, manganese and lithium salts can be disassembled from retired power batteries, which can be recycled into the manufacture of new batteries. The actual situation may be much more complicated. Because power battery recycling, dismantling and recycling have to face the situation of different brands, different types of batteries, lack of consistency in residual value evaluation, limited storage conditions in recycling outlets, and lack of professional and technical personnel, the internal structure design of batteries, the form of series-parallel grouping, The length of service and use time, the application model and common working conditions are different, and the dismantling plan should also be divided into categories, and its difficulty is self-evident.

How to overcome and solve the difficulties? The types of power batteries for vehicles usually include lithium iron phosphate batteries, ternary lithium batteries, 18650 batteries, blade batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, nickel-chromium batteries, fuel cells, etc., using lithium iron phosphate batteries There are many batteries and ternary lithium batteries, which are usually used in new energy vehicles.

car power battery

The traditional crusher directly crushes the pole pieces of the waste battery, and does not take into account that the aluminum powder of the battery will generate hydrogen or static electricity when it is wet, but the high-speed friction and powder removal technology has abandoned the low-end and low-efficiency hammer crusher. The high-speed friction machine is a special pole piece de-powdering equipment. The system is designed as multiple rows of friction blades. When the rotor blades are rotated at a high speed, a strong airflow is generated, so that the materials collide and rub against each other, so that the pole pieces on the pole pieces fall off from the metal foil. . (with water cooling system and confined space)

Confined space discharges the waste batteries into the discharge tank, the screw blades in the tank, the radiating pipe and the discharge medium, and then drives the rotating tank blades to push inward when feeding, and the lifter descends after discharge, and the drive reverses to discharge the batteries and the medium out, screening The battery and the power generation medium are separated, and the exhaust gas is sucked away for disposal. Realize the functions of adding dielectric discharge, cooling, improving efficiency and reusing waste heat. The discharge medium is solid or liquid (solid such as copper, iron, mica, etc.; liquid such as sodium sulfate, sodium and potassium carbonate, graphite and carbon slurry, etc.; avoid using sodium chloride, sodium chloride is strongly corrosive to aluminum; lithium battery discharge should not be used as much as possible. Liquid discharge, because the electrolyte is easy to contaminate the liquid, and the fluorine entering the liquid is extremely corrosive to the equipment, and it is not good for the back-end crushing and sorting wet recovery)

The waste power battery recycling technology still needs continuous updating and equipment upgrading. my country's power battery recycling system still needs to be continuously improved. The recycling of power batteries is of great significance to environmental protection and social security. The upstream mineral resources of the power battery are relatively scarce, and the external dependence is high. The import dependence of lithium, nickel and cobalt is as high as 80%, 80% and 97% respectively, while the rare resources such as valuable metals extracted in the power battery recycling process are It can be reused, and at the same time of protecting the environment, it can generate huge economic value and social value.

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